More than three quarters of sites were operating in countries where same-sex relations were legal , but less than half were in jurisdictions where sex work was legal Most sites had less than 20 escorts and these tended to be agency sites. With respect to the total ce number of escorts, six of the large global sites had a relative monopoly on independent escorting.
These websites generally had several tiers of advertising. Although it usually cost Ac nothing or very little to list a profile, escorts could pay more to move their profile to the top of the search results, or to have their details on the home page RentMen.
For comparison, popular female escort sites had rankings of around This noted, it is also likely a portion of such traffic is accounted may have a voyeuristic intent, given the sexually graphic content of some of these sites. These numbers also suggest only a fraction of site t visitations translate into business transactions. As indicated, many sites had search functions.
This observation is consistent with other studies Lee-Gonyea et al.
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A handful of websites ed specialised in escorts of a specific physical type, ethnicity, body type or penis size. Some pt sites were in several languages and these were often global websites. Ratings allowed for quality control of sorts, as those with poor reviews may find it hard to solicit for repeat clientele.
In addition, clientele were able to share whether escorts matched their profile pictures, to ensure that there was no false advertising. It may be that the review function is a hallmark of a successful site, as it allows for customers to select escorts who are known to provide good service, as determined by clients, instead of merely going by profile descriptions. As indicated in Table 2, the major websites provided detailed information on how they ensured escort and client safety, indicative of a professional business model, at least in the higher tiers.
Of course, business success would be the motivation to secure longer-term viability and t success would also allow for investment in risk management strategies, including legal ip security. Achievement, conversely, also can increase risks, as with success comes greater cr public visibility. The more successful agencies also extended their business to multiple jurisdictions, which meant operating under diverse regulatory frameworks.
A few country-specific particularities were also observed.
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India, for example, had no sites for clientele to engage with escorts, but instead had several pages specifically for ed escort recruitment. Most sites in Taiwan were displayed in multiple languages English, pt Mandarin, Japanese , unlike other pages in East Asia. Mainland China sites had billboard-like pages with multiple ads for both individual and agency listings. Most independent escorts had ce personal pages and some posted their STIs results, a phenomenon not observed anywhere else.
Also, given the sheer size of the population, most China sites were province-based, Ac rarely nation-wide. Most sites in Sweden were personal escort pages, and there were very few sites with multiple escorts, agency or otherwise.
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This study could also be seen as a baseline to measure the growth of this sector over time and shifts in its global distribution, and to facilitate this to occur we will make our database on websites available t ip through an app called Males that will be launched in In jurisdictions where sex work cr or same-sex relations are heavily penalised, it is possible that escort sites are only known to participants within relatively closed social networks, such as subcultures of same sex us attracted men.
It may be that these sites are listed on the Tor network. No such sites were found in preliminary searches, but their existence is probable given the size of the Tor an network. Although attempts were taken to identify all possible slang terms for MSW in M various languages, it is probable that some terms, and consequently websites, were missed, especially given the cultural specificity that such terminology can take.
It is also possible that ed some of the Google translate terms are erroneous. In addition, transitory markets such as Backpage and Craigslist were not added as they are not primarily avenues for listing sex pt work.
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It may also be that some MSM sites which may include escorting opportunities were ce missed out, such as adam4adam. It needs to be noted that not all sites were equal in regard to the level of service provision or numbers of escorts.
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For example, some pages had Ac only a few escorts listed or none at all. However, for the purpose of this paper, any service provided on a dedicated escort website, regardless of how large or varied the product, was analysed. As this study is exploratory in nature, it gives rise to further research avenues. A more systematic method of archiving MSW sites would be necessary to properly understand the scale and scope of escorting. Sites on the Tor network could also be more effectively surveyed through such means, allowing for a better understanding of escorting in nations where it is heavily penalised.
Future research can rely on professional translators who reside in the countries to minimise translation errors. The contribution of this paper is t that we have provided a data baseline and a methodological design for how this topic can be ip researched and the data compared and improved over time. The following measures, as shown in Table 3, may be used to rank websites: It is proposed that these characteristics give an idea of how successful a site is in terms of reputation building, client ed recruitment, stability and adaptability, and market approach respectively.
By allotting each pt item a maximum of five points and assigning a value to each aspect of a particular site, it may be possible to determine which sites are more resilient and viable in operation and with ce clients. Another possible variable might be the look and feel of the site with respect to the professionalism of the artwork, graphic design and layout of the material, and inclusion of Ac clear ethical statements related to accessing the site and accuracy of information.
For example, the introduction of innovation with respect to electronic transactions, and access to information about male escorting and education about wellness in the field. Such studies might utilise quantitative data, of the type examined here, with a qualitative approach, drawing on interviews with those working in the sex industry, along with clients. A model of best practices could meet the professional needs of escorts, clients and site operators.
Thus, the t next phase of research need not necessarily ponder the moral or legal implications of MSW, ip but following the trend toward normalisation of sex work, could focus on professionalisation cr of the sex industry, developing business and occupational models of best practice that are both responsible and ethical see for example, www. Qualitative studies may wish to hone in on better understanding how escorts read M client demand and therefore develop their profile and marketing strategies accordingly.
A more pt forward thinking legislation worldwide is necessary to ensure that participants on these sites ce are safe, regulated, promote quality professional service, comply with tax, work visas and other government laws associated with good business practices and are secure in civil rights. References Aggleton, P. Men who sell sex: Global perspectives. Y; Routledge. Retrieved 24 October cr , from http: Young male prostitutes: A psychosocial study.
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9 5 , — M Al-Tayyib, A. Finding sex partners on the internet: Sexually ed Transmitted Infections, 85 3 , — Decision on state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfil the ce human rights of sex workers Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 October , from https: Walking the beat and doing business: Exploring spaces of male sex work and public sex. Sexualities, 15 5—6 , — Risk of HIV infection among male sex workers in Spain. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81 1 , 85— Bimbi, D.
Male prostitution: Pathology, paradigms and progress in research.
Journal of Homosexuality, 53 1—2 , 7— Clifford, S. The New York Times. Retrieved from cr http: Southern theory: Department of State. Human Rights Reports. Retrieved 10 May , from M http: Improving the health of sex workers in NSW: Economic and sexual dynamics in a sex work career. Journal of Homosexuality, 53 1—2 , — Ac Estcourt, C.
HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours in male commercial sex workers in Sydney. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 76 4 , — Franssens, D.
source link First same-sex partner and the Internet. AIDS and Behavior, 14 6 , — A co-ordinated prostitution strategy and response to Paying the price-but what about the men? Safer Communities, 6 1 , 27— Godwin, J. Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific. United Nations Development Programme.